"What we want is the striking down of race . . . They give tests to grade children so what do we think is the solution? Simple. Put the dumb colored children in with the dumb white children, and put the smart colored children with the smart white children--that is no problem."
--Thurgood Marshall, during oral arguments before the Supreme Court*
*Mark Tushnet, "Change and Continuity in the Concept of Civil Rights: Thurgood Marshall and Affirmative Action," in Paul, Miller, and Paul, Reassessing Civil Rights, 151.